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Kos or Cos (English pronunciation: /kɒs/) (GreekΚωςGreek pronunciation: [kos]) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes. The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres (25 by 5 miles), and is 4 km (2 miles) from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegeanregion. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos town.

The name Kos (GreekΚῶςgenitive Κῶ) is first attested in the Iliad, and has been in continuous use since. Other ancient names include Meropis, Cea, and Nymphaea.

In many Romance languages, Kos was formerly known as StanchoStanchio, or Stinco, and in Ottoman and modern Turkish it is known as İstanköy, all from the Greek expression εις την Κω 'to Kos'; cf. the similarIstanbul, and Stimpoli, Crete. Under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes, it was known as Lango or Langò, presumably because of its length.In The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, the author misunderstands this, and treats Lango and Kos as distinct islands.

In Italian, it is known as Coo.

A person from Kos is called a "Koan" in English. The word is also an adjective, as in "Koan goods".

Kos is in the Aegean Sea. Its coastline is 112 kilometres (70 miles) long and it extends from west to east.

In addition to the main town and port, also called Kos, the main villages of Kos island are KardamenaKefalos, Tingaki, Antimachia, Mastihari, Marmari and Pyli. Smaller ones are Zia, Zipari, Platani, Lagoudi and Asfendiou.

Tourism is the main industry in Kos,the island's beaches being the primary attraction. The main port and population centre on the island, Kos town, is also the tourist and cultural centre, with whitewashed buildings including many hotels, restaurants and a number of nightclubs forming the Kos town "barstreet". The seaside village of Kardamena is a popular resort for young holidaymakers (primarily from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia) and has a large number of bars and nightclubs.

Farming is the second principal occupation, with the main crops being grapes, almondsfigsolives, and tomatoes, along with wheat and cornCos lettuce may be grown here, but the name is unrelated.

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